In common usage it refers to all Greek history before the Roman Empire, but historians use the term more precisely.
Some writers include the periods of the Greek-speaking Mycenaean civilization that collapsed about 1150 In the modern Greek schoolbooks, "ancient times" is a period of about 900 years, from the catastrophe of Mycenae until the conquest of the country by the Romans, that is divided in four periods, based on styles of art as much as culture and politics.
Greek influence stands behind so many aspects of contemporary life that it is difficult to imagine what life would have been like had the ancient artistic, political, and intellectual life of Greece not flourished as it did.
At the same time that some of the great Greek thinkers were flourishing, Buddha and Confucius and others were also enlightening humanity elsewhere in the world.
Axial Age theory posits that something very special was taking place at this time, laying the ethical and moral foundations that humanity needed in order to become what humanity is intended to be, that is, moral agents in a world over which they have responsibility for its welfare.
There are no fixed or universally agreed upon dates for the beginning or the end of the ancient Greek period.
The Greeks are believed to have migrated southward into the Balkan peninsula in several waves beginning in the late third millennium is a "Dark Age" from which no primary texts survive, and only scant archaeological evidence remains.
Secondary and tertiary texts such as Herodotus' Histories, Pausanias’ Description of Greece, Diodorus' Bibliotheca, and Jerome's Chronicon, contain brief chronologies and king lists for this period.The history of ancient Greece is often taken to end with the reign of Alexander the Great, who died in 323 Any history of ancient Greece requires a cautionary note on sources."Ancient Greece" is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times.It refers not only to the geographical peninsula of modern Greece, but also to areas of Hellenic culture that were settled in ancient times by Greeks: Cyprus and the Aegean islands, the Aegean coast of Anatolia (then known as Ionia), Sicily and southern Italy (known as Magna Graecia), and the scattered Greek settlements on the coasts of Colchis, Illyria, Thrace, Egypt, Cyrenaica, southern Gaul, east and northeast of the Iberian peninsula, Iberia and Taurica.Largely due to the way in which the Roman Empire borrowed and built on classical Greek culture and learning, Greek culture became part of the heritage of Europe and became intertwined with Christianity.It continues to be the foundation of much human thought across many spheres.