The crust and top of the mantle from a rigid layer called the lithosphere, which is broken into a number of pieces called plates.
The yolk represents the earth’s core, the white represents the mantle layer and shell is the earth’s crust.
Beneath the lithosphere the mantle rock is hot and under pressure, making it soft and pliable.
Volcanoes along the Pacific “Rim of Fire” such as Mt. Because Hawaiian volcanoes are formed in the middle of the Pacific Plate and not on the edge , the plate tectonic theory by itself doesn’t explain their origin.Hawaiian volcanoes are produced by a hot spot in the mantle.The hot spot is a rising current where the upper mantle melts, producing magma.Magma is less dense than the surrounding rock, and rises up to the surface.About 95% of earth’s volcanoes and earthquakes occur at plate edges, known as plate boundaries.
At parallel boundaries, the plates slide by each other causing earthquakes.
At divergent boundaries, where plates move apart, magma fills the cracks making both plates grow.
At convergent boundaries, where plates collide, dense oceanic plates sink under continental plates collide, dense oceanic plates sink under continental plates and are re-melted. Fuji in Japan are created by such “recycled” plates.
A volcano forms on top of the plate, so as if on a conveyor belt.
The volcano becomes dormant as it moves away from the hot spot and frequent eruptions cease. The pacific plate moves toward the northwest at a rate of about 4 inches (10 cm) per year, so the oldest Hawaiian volcanoes are located to the northwest.
The youngest and largest island, Hawaii, has three active volcanoes which have erupted during recorded history.